August 8

This Day in History

Also on This Day

Lead Story
Nixon resigns, 1974
American Revolution
Morgan and Virginians arrive in Cambridge, 1775
Automotive
Land Rovers used in famous Great Train Robbery, 1963
Civil War
Lee offers resignation, 1863
Cold War
Truman signs United Nations Charter, 1945
Disaster
Fire traps 262 miners, 1956
General Interest
Emiliano Zapata born, 1879
German saboteurs executed in Washington, 1942
Hollywood
Spike Lee’s first feature, She’s Gotta Have It, premieres, 1986
Literary
Keats returns from walking tour, 1818
Music
Gangsta rap hits the mainstream with the release of N.W.A's Straight Outta Compton, 1988
Old West
General Nelson Miles is born, 1839
Presidential
Nixon resigns, 1974
Sports
Lights go on at Wrigley, 1988
Vietnam War
Nixon and Agnew receive the Republican Party nomination, 1968
Vice President Agnew under attack, 1973
Nixon announces that he will resign the Presidency, 1974
World War I
Battle of Amiens , 1918
World War II
Soviets declare war on Japan; invade Manchuria, 1945

Music

Aug 8, 1988:

Gangsta rap hits the mainstream with the release of N.W.A's Straight Outta Compton

As of 1988, the top-selling hip hop albums of all time were Run D.M.C.'s Raising Hell and the Beastie Boys' License to Ill, both released in 1987 and both selling millions without ruffling many feathers. In June 1988, Public Enemy released It Takes A Nation of Millions To Hold Us Back, an album that broke new ground both musically and lyrically with its richly layered, aggressive sound and its angry, politically conscious content. Yet even Public Enemy were dwarfed commercially by DJ Jazzy Jeff and the Fresh Prince, whose kid-friendly single "Parents Just Don't Understand" and album He's the DJ, I'm The Rapper were both Top 5 pop hits that same summer. The group that would truly revolutionize hip hop was N.W.A—"Niggaz With Attitude" —whose debut album, Straight Outta Compton, was released on this day in 1988.

The release of Straight Outta Compton marks a critical turning point in the history of hip hop, which was a booming global phenomenon in 1988 but still hadn't strayed far from its roots as party music. Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five had established hip hop's potential for social commentary with their epic single "The Message" in 1983, but Straight Outta Compton offered something far less measured and polite than one usually associates with the word "commentary." The album's first three tracks alone— "Straight Outta Compton," "**** Tha Police" and "Gangsta Gangsta"—may have contained more explicit language and incendiary subject matter than every previous hip hop record combined, and it contained nothing like a didactic "message." It may not have been the first recorded example of Gangsta rap—Schooly D and Ice-T mined similar territory somewhat earlier—but Straight Outta Compton is the album that introduced it to the mainstream.

What is remarkable is that the album reached the mainstream at all. Far too controversial and explicit for commercial radio or MTV, Straight Outta Compton was shut out from the traditional route to commercial success. Yet it would eventually be certified triple Platinum, helped in part by a counterproductive effort at suppression in the form of an official letter from the Federal Bureau of Investigation warning N.W.A and their label, Priority Records, that "Advocating violence and assault is wrong....Music plays a significant role in society and I wanted you to to be aware of the FBI's position relative ["**** Tha Police"] and its message."

N.W.A broke up in several stages between 1989 and 1992, releasing two more hit albums along the way: 100 Miles and Runnin' (1990) and Efil4zaggin (Niggaz4Life) (1991). Former members Dr. Dre and Ice Cube would both go on to have hugely successful careers in popular music, while founding member Easy E would die of AIDS in 1995, by which time Gangsta rap—the sub-genre he'd helped to create—was the dominant style in the world of hip hop.

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