The 15th Amendment: Ratification
In 1867, following the American Civil War (1861-65), the Republican-dominated U.S. Congress passed the First Reconstruction Act, over President Andrew Johnson’s veto, dividing the South into five military districts and outlining how new governments based on universal manhood suffrage were to be established. With the adoption of the 15th Amendment in 1870, a politically mobilized African-American community joined with white allies in the Southern states to elect the Republican Party to power, which brought about radical changes across the South. By late 1870, all the former Confederate states had been readmitted to the Union, and most were controlled by the Republican Party, thanks to the support of black voters.
In the same year, Hiram Rhoades Revels (1827-1901), a Republican from Natchez, Mississippi, became the first African American ever to sit in the U.S. Congress, when he was elected to the U.S. Senate. Although black Republicans never obtained political office in proportion to their overwhelming electoral majority, Revels and a dozen other black men served in Congress during Reconstruction, more than 600 served in state legislatures and many more held local offices.
The 15th Amendment: Post-Reconstruction Era
In the late 1870s, the Southern Republican Party vanished with the end of Reconstruction, and Southern state governments effectively nullified the 14th amendment (passed in 1868, it guaranteed citizenship and all its privileges to African Americans) and the 15th amendment, stripping blacks in the South of the right to vote. In the ensuing decades, various discriminatory practices including poll taxes and literacy tests, along with intimidation and violence, were used to prevent African Americans from exercising their right to vote.
IThe 15th Amendment and the Voting Rights Act of 1965
The Voting Rights Act, signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson (1908-73) on August 6, 1965, aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that denied African Americans their right to vote under the 15th Amendment.
The act banned the use of literacy tests, provided for federal oversight of voter registration in areas where less than 50 percent of the nonwhite population had not registered to vote, and authorized the U.S. attorney general to investigate the use of poll taxes in state and local elections (in 1964, the 24th Amendment made poll taxes illegal in federal elections; poll taxes in state elections were banned in 1966 by the U.S. Supreme Court).
After the passage of the Voting Rights Act, state and local enforcement of the law was weak and it often was ignored outright, mainly in the South and in areas where the proportion of blacks in the population was high and their vote threatened the political status quo. Still, the Voting Rights Act gave African-American voters the legal means to challenge voting restrictions and vastly improved voter turnout.
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