Agent Orange was a powerful mixture of chemical defoliants used by U.S. military forces during the Vietnam War to eliminate forest cover for North Vietnamese and Viet Cong troops, as well as crops that might be used to feed them. The U.S. program of defoliation, codenamed Operation Ranch Hand, sprayed more than 19 million gallons of herbicides over 4.5 million acres of land in Vietnam from 1961 to 1972. Agent Orange, which contained the chemical dioxin, was the most commonly used of the herbicide mixtures, and the most effective. It was later revealed to cause serious health issues--including tumors, birth defects, rashes, psychological symptoms and cancer--among returning U.S. servicemen and their families as well as among the Vietnamese population.
- Operation Ranch Hand and Agent Orange
- Agent Orange: Veteran Health Issues and Legal Battle
- Effects of Agent Orange on Vietnam
Operation Ranch Hand and Agent Orange
From 1961 to 1972, the U.S. military conducted a large-scale defoliation program aimed at destroying the forest and jungle cover used by enemy North Vietnamese and Viet Cong troops fighting against U.S. and South Vietnamese forces in the Vietnam War. U.S. aircraft were deployed to spray powerful mixtures of herbicides around roads, rivers, canals and military bases, as well as on crops that might be used to supply enemy troops. During this process, crops and water sources used by the non-combatant peasant population of South Vietnam could also be hit. In all, Operation Ranch Hand deployed more than 19 million gallons of herbicides over 4.5 million acres of land.
The most commonly used, and most effective, mixture of herbicides used was Agent Orange, named for the orange stripe painted on the 55-gallon drums in which the mixture was stored. It was one of several "Rainbow Herbicides" used, along with Agents White, Purple, Pink, Green and Blue. U.S. planes sprayed some 11 million to 13 million gallons of Agent Orange in Vietnam between January 1965 and April 1970. According to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Agent Orange contained "minute traces" of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), more commonly known as dioxin. Through studies done on laboratory animals, dioxin has been shown to be highly toxic even in minute doses; human exposure to the chemical could be associated with serious health issues such as muscular dysfunction, inflammation, birth defects, nervous system disorders and even the development of various cancers.
Agent Orange: Veteran Health Issues and Legal Battle
Questions regarding Agent Orange arose in the United States after an increasing number of returning Vietnam veterans and their families began to report a range of afflictions, including rashes and other skin irritations, miscarriages, psychological symptoms, Type-2 diabetes, birth defects in children and cancers such as Hodgkin's disease, prostate cancer and leukemia.
In 1979, a class action lawsuit was filed on behalf of 2.4 million veterans who were exposed to Agent Orange during their service in Vietnam. Five years later, in an out-of-court-settlement, seven large chemical companies that manufactured the herbicide agreed to pay $180 million in compensation to the veterans or their next of kin. Various challenges to the settlement followed, including lawsuits filed by some 300 veterans, before the U.S. Supreme Court confirmed it in 1988. By that time, the settlement had risen to some $240 million including interest. In 1991, President George H.W. Bush signed into law the Agent Orange Act, which mandated that some diseases associated with defoliants (including non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, soft tissue sarcomas and chloracne) be treated as the result of wartime service and helped codify the VA's response to veterans with conditions related to their exposure to Agent Orange.
Effects of Agent Orange on Vietnam
In addition to the massive environmental impact of the U.S. defoliation program in Vietnam, that nation has reported that some 400,000 people were killed or maimed as a result of exposure to herbicides like Agent Orange. In addition, Vietnam claims half a million children have been born with serious birth defects, while as many 2 million people are suffering from cancer or other illness caused by Agent Orange.
In 2004, a group of Vietnamese citizens filed a class-action lawsuit against more than 30 chemical companies, including the same ones that settled with the U.S. veterans in 1984. The suit, which sought billions of dollars worth of damages, claimed that Agent Orange and its poisonous effects left a legacy of health problems and that its use constituted a violation of international law. In March 2005, a federal judge in Brooklyn, New York, dismissed the suit; another U.S. court rejected a final appeal in 2008.
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Agent Orange. (2013). The History Channel website. Retrieved 3:59, December 8, 2013, from http://www.history.com/topics/agent-orange.
Agent Orange. [Internet]. 2013. The History Channel website. Available from: http://www.history.com/topics/agent-orange [Accessed 8 Dec 2013].
“Agent Orange.” 2013. The History Channel website. Dec 8 2013, 3:59 http://www.history.com/topics/agent-orange.
“Agent Orange,” The History Channel website, 2013, http://www.history.com/topics/agent-orange [accessed Dec 8, 2013].
“Agent Orange,” The History Channel website, http://www.history.com/topics/agent-orange (accessed Dec 8, 2013).
Agent Orange [Internet]. The History Channel website; 2013 [cited 2013 Dec 8] Available from: http://www.history.com/topics/agent-orange.
Agent Orange, http://www.history.com/topics/agent-orange (last visited Dec 8, 2013).
Agent Orange. The History Channel website. 2013. Available at: http://www.history.com/topics/agent-orange. Accessed Dec 8, 2013.