The economic health of Detroit has long been linked to the auto industry. Nicknamed the “Motor City,” Detroit was the world’s fastest-growing city between 1900 and 1930, according to an April 2009 report in the National Review Online, which noted that: “Detroit’s population currently stands at around 900,000 inhabitants–half of what it was in 1950. The U.S. Census reports that in 2000, Detroit became the first American city with a population formerly more than 1 million to dip below the million mark.”
In 2008, the American auto industry was hard hit by the global economic crisis and vehicle sales were slumping. Both General Motors and Chrysler were forced to ask the federal government for multi-billion-dollar bailout loans in order to remain in business. Despite these loans, Chrysler filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection on April 30, 2009, and announced it would enter into a partnership with Italian carmaker Fiat. A little over a month later, on June 1, GM also announced it was filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. GM, which from the early 1930s to 2008 was the world’s top-selling maker of cars and trucks, planned to shutter dealerships and plants and shed its Hummer, Pontiac, Saab and Saturn brands.