Near the British-occupied city of Philadelphia, Patriot forces under General George Washington attempt an early morning attack on Sir William Howe’s British troops at Germantown. Heavy morning fog threw Washington’s divisions into disarray, and by 10 o’clock the battle was over. Although the Americans were forced into a retreat, both sides suffered heavy losses, and the battle demonstrated Washington’s strategic abilities. Coupled with the American victory at the Battle of Saratoga in New York on October 17, the Battle of Germantown convinced France to recognize and support American independence and give open military assistance, thus marking a turning point in the American Revolution. After Germantown, General Washington led his forces into their winter quarters at Valley Forge.