Edwin McMasters Stanton (1814-1869) was a lawyer and politician who served as Abraham Lincoln’s secretary of war during the Civil War (1861-65). A native of Ohio, Stanton briefly served as attorney general under President James Buchanan before succeeding Simon Cameron as the U.S. secretary of war in January 1862. Stanton proved an influential force in managing the Union war effort and eventually became one of Abraham Lincoln’s closest advisers. He would continue to serve under President Andrew Johnson from 1865 to 1868 but was bitterly opposed to Johnson’s lenient Reconstruction policies in the South. Johnson attempted to replace Stanton in 1867 and 1868, and Stanton later supported radical Republican efforts to remove Johnson from office. Stanton resigned as secretary of war in May 1868. He was later appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court in December 1869 but died only days later at the age of 55.