Jamaican-American military official and diplomat Colin Powell was born in New York in 1937. After serving two tours in Vietnam, he ascended the military ranks while earning positions at the Pentagon and the Department of Defense. Powell was named national security adviser to President Ronald Reagan in 1987, and in 1991 he took over as joint chief of staff. He became a national figure during the Persian Gulf War, developing the “Powell Doctrine,” as chief military strategist. Powell became President George W. Bush’s secretary of state in 2000, but resigned in 2004 after acknowledging his defense of an Iraq invasion was based on faulty information.