American colonial politician, judge and historian Thomas Hutchinson (1711-1780) was born into a prominent Boston family. He began his career in local politics in 1737, and was named speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1746. Hutchinson later simultaneously held a series of posts, including chief justice of the Superior Court of Judicature and lieutenant governor of the state. A supporter of parliamentary authority, he became the last civilian royal governor of Massachusetts in 1771. However, he struggled to establish control during increasingly turbulent times and was replaced by General Thomas Gage in 1774.