J. Edgar Hoover (1895-1972) was the longtime director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). He became involved in law enforcement as a special assistant to the attorney general, overseeing the roundups and deportations of suspected communists during the post-World War I Red Scare. Named bureau director in 1924, Hoover emphasized modern investigational techniques and earned renown for challenging criminal syndicates. He also became known for secretly monitoring the activities of organizations that were considered subversive, including the Black Panthers, the Socialist Workers Party and the Ku Klux Klan. Despite his controversial methods, Hoover remained in power until his death.