Year
1413

Henry V ascends upon father’s death

King Henry IV, the first English monarch of the Lancastrian dynasty, dies after years of illness, and his eldest son, Henry, ascends to the English throne.

In 1399, Henry Bolingbroke was crowned King Henry IV of England following the forced abdication of King Richard II, who was greatly weakened by internal conflicts stemming from his quarrels with Parliament. In later years, Henry IV was a chronic invalid, and his son Henry presided over the king’s royal council. Young Henry also led armies against Owen Glendower and the Welsh rebels, and figured largely in the English victory over the Welsh at the Battle of Shrewdsbury.

After his ascendance to the throne in March 1413, the main effort of King Henry V’s reign was his claim, through his great-grandfather Edward III, to the French crown. In 1415, Henry invaded France and won a stunning victory against great odds at the Battle of Agincourt in northern France. By 1419, Normandy was again under English control, and in 1420 the Perpetual Peace of Troyes was concluded, under which Henry married Catherine of Valois, the daughter of King Charles VI of France, and was recognized as regent of France and heir to the French throne. His triumph, however, was short-lived. During a siege of Melun and Meaux, his ill health grew worse, and in August 1422 Henry died of camp fever at Vincennes.

ALSO ON THIS DAY

Republican Party founded

In Ripon, Wisconsin, former members of the Whig Party meet to establish a new party to oppose the spread of slavery into the western territories. The Whig Party, which was formed in 1834 to oppose the “tyranny” of President Andrew Jackson, had shown itself incapable of coping ...read more

Nerve gas attack on Tokyo subway

At the height of the morning rush hour in Tokyo, Japan, five two-man terrorist teams from the Aum Shinrikyo religious cult, riding on separate subway trains, converge at the Kasumigaseki station and secretly release lethal sarin gas into the air. The terrorists then took a sarin ...read more

LBJ sends federal troops to Alabama

On this day in 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson notifies Alabama’s Governor George Wallace that he will use federal authority to call up the Alabama National Guard in order to supervise a planned civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery.Intimidation and discrimination had ...read more

Babe Didrikson goes to the mound for Philly

On March 20, 1934, Mildrid “Babe” Didrikson pitches one inning of exhibition baseball for the Philadelphia Athletics in a game against the Brooklyn Dodgers. She started the first inning, and allowed just one walk and no hits. Though Didrickson was not the first woman to play ...read more

Ned Buntline born

Ned Buntline, the “dime millionaire” and discoverer of Buffalo Bill, is born in Stamford, New York.Perhaps more than any single writer, Ned Buntline was responsible for creating a highly romanticized and somewhat misleading image of the American West as the setting for great ...read more

Uncle Tom’s Cabin is published

Harriet Beecher Stowe’s anti-slavery novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, is published. The novel sold 300,000 copies within three months and was so widely read that when President Abraham Lincoln met Stowe in 1862, he reportedly said, “So this is the little lady who made this big ...read more

20th annual Academy Awards celebrated

Hollywood’s elite braved freezing temperatures and strong winds to attend the 20th annual Academy Awards ceremony, which took place on this day in 1948 at the Shrine Civic Auditorium in Los Angeles, California.The first Academy Awards had been given out in May 1929, in a banquet ...read more

Black Death is created, allegedly

According to scholars at the University of Paris, the Black Death is created on this day in 1345, from what they call “a triple conjunction of Saturn, Jupiter and Mars in the 40th degree of Aquarius, occurring on the 20th of March 1345″. The Black Death, also known as the ...read more

Tokyo subways are attacked with sarin gas

Several packages of deadly sarin gas are set off in the Tokyo subway system killing twelve people and injuring over 5,000. Sarin gas was invented by the Nazis and is one of the most lethal nerve gases known to man. Tokyo police quickly learned who had planted the chemical weapons ...read more

Khrushchev begins his rise to power

The Soviet government announces that Nikita Khrushchev has been selected as one of five men named to the new office of Secretariat of the Communist Party. Khrushchev’s selection was a crucial first step in his rise to power in the Soviet Union—an advance that culminated in ...read more

Willie and Tad Lincoln get the measles

On this day in 1861, President Abraham Lincoln’s sons, Willie and Tad, are diagnosed with the measles, adding to the president’s many troubles.Few U.S. presidents worked as hard in office as Abraham Lincoln did during the Civil War. Besides managing his generals and the war ...read more

Auto pioneer James Packard dies

James Packard, co-founder of the Packard Motor Company, a pioneering American automaker, dies at the age of 64 on this day in 1928. During Packard’s heyday in the 1930s, its vehicles were driven by movie stars and business titans.Packard was born in Warren, Ohio, on November 5, ...read more

British troops liberate Mandalay, Burma

On this day, the 14th Army, under British Gen. William J. Slim, captures the Burmese city of Mandalay from the Japanese, bringing the Allies one step closer to liberating all of Burma.Mandalay, a city on the Irrawaddy River in central Burma (now Myanmar), was the center of the ...read more