Albert Sidney Johnston (1803-1862) was a U.S. and Texas military officer who served as a Confederate general during the Civil War (1861-65). A veteran of the Black Hawk War (1832), Johnston resigned from the U.S. Army in 1834. He served in the Texas Army during the Texas Revolution (1835-36) and as a colonel of Texas volunteers during the Mexican-American War (1846-48). He was reappointed to the U.S. Army in 1849 and led troops during the Utah War (1857-58) before joining the Confederacy at the start of the Civil War in 1861. Johnston was appointed a full general and served in the war’s Western Theater as commander of all Confederate troops between Texas and the Appalachian Mountains. Following a string of Confederate losses in early 1862, Johnston engaged Union forces at the Battle of Shiloh (April 6-7, 1862). The battle ended in a Union victory and Johnston was mortally wounded. He died at the age of 59.