Tadeusz Kosciuszko was a skilled engineer with a military education by the time he arrived in the American colonies from Poland in 1776. Offering his services to the revolutionary cause, he masterminded a key British defeat at Saratoga and oversaw the building of military fortifications at West Point. At war’s end, he returned to Poland and led a valiant but ultimately unsuccessful uprising against the nation’s partition by Russia and other foreign powers. After several years of imprisonment in Russia, Kosciuszko returned to the United States, where he was welcomed as a hero and counted Thomas Jefferson among his close friends. With Poland still under foreign control throughout the rest of his life, Kosciuszko never returned to his native land, and died in exile in Switzerland in 1817.

Tadeusz Kosciuszko: Early Life and Service in the American Revolution

Born into a modest family of noble origins, Kosciuszko excelled in his military studies at the Royal Military Academy of Warsaw and drew the attention of King Stanisław August Poniatowski, who sent him to France for further education. He returned to Poland in 1774 but left only two years later for America, where he offered his services (including his engineering expertise) to the colonial forces fighting for independence from Great Britain. The Continental Congress appointed him as a colonel of engineers, and he initially worked to build fortifications in order to protect Philadelphia from British attack.

Did you know? After reading the Declaration of Independence in 1776, Tadeusz Kosciuszko was so moved that he sought a meeting with its principal author, Thomas Jefferson. The two later became close friends, and maintained a correspondence for more than 20 years until Kosciuszko's death in 1817.

Kosciuszko was then sent to New York, where General Horatio Gates put Kosciuszko in charge of planning the defensive strategy for his army at Saratoga, whose defeat of the British forces under General John Burgoyne in October 1777 would prove to be a turning point in the Revolutionary War.

In 1778, General George Washington commissioned Kosciuszko to build the military fortifications at West Point, an important defensive position on the Hudson River. Considered impenetrable, the site eventually became the site of the U.S. Military Academy. By war’s end, Kosciuszko was made a brigadier general and received U.S. citizenship, along with a medal for his service to the Continental Army.

Tadeusz Kosciuszko: Revolutionary Leader in Poland

Back in Poland, Kosciuszko’s military skill, leadership and revolutionary zeal would again be called upon in conflicts with foreign powers (Russia and Prussia) seeking to partition his native country. When the Russian armies of Catherine the Great invaded in 1792, Kosciuszko bravely led Polish forces in opposition but was forced into exile in Saxony (eastern Germany) after the king and government capitulated. He returned in 1794 and was appointed commander in chief of the army, effectively wielding absolute power over his countrymen. To encourage peasants to volunteer for army service, he suspended serfdom, angering many members of the nobility.

Despite a valiant defense of Warsaw against a siege by Prussian and Russian forces, Kosciuszko was wounded and taken prisoner by Catherine’s army. Without his leadership, the uprising collapsed. The Third Partition in 1797 effectively ended Poland’s existence as a nation until after World War I.

Tadeusz Kosciuszko’s Later Life

In 1796, after the death of Catherine the Great, her son Paul I granted amnesty to Kosciuszko in exchange for his promise not to return to Poland. He traveled back to the United States in August 1797, where he received a hero’s welcome in Philadelphia and formed a lasting friendship with Thomas Jefferson, then the U.S. vice president. After less than a year in the United States, he returned to Europe.

After retiring from public life to Berville, near Fontainebleau, France, Kosciuszko rebuffed efforts by Napoleon Bonaparte to enlist Polish support for France’s impending war with Russia. When Napoleon restored the Polish nation as the Grand Duchy of Warsaw in 1807, Kosciuszko remained in exile. After Napoleon’s fall in 1814, the Congress of Vienna again returned control over Poland to Russia. Kosciuszko spent the last years of his life in Switzerland, where he died in 1817. His body was later buried at Wawel Castle, in Krakow, Poland, alongside the tombs of the Polish kings.